"When I am working on a problem I never think about beauty. I only think about how to solve the problem. But when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful, I know it is wrong."

- Buckminster Fuller -

Time Lensing

When astronomers were measuring the rotational velocities of various galaxies, they noticed that all of the stars in that galaxy were orbiting at roughly the same speed. This goes against Newton's laws of gravity, which states that objects farther from the center should orbit at slower speeds (as given by the equation below).


vo  is the orbital velocity of the star

G  is the Gravitational Constant

M  is the mass of the center of the galaxy

ro is the distance of the orbiting star to the center of the galaxy


Astronomers and cosmologists reasoned that if all the visible matter wasn't enough to account for the orbital velocities, then there must be a galactic halo of hidden or 'dark matter' adding to the gravitational pull. Although to date, no dark matter has been detected.

An alternative theory (called MOND) has been developed that tries to explain the galaxy rotation problem as well. It proposes an adjustment to Newton's laws of gravity. This theory has not been accepted by astrophysicists because it does not agree with general relativity and because it has no physical basis (the formulas are adjusted to agree with observation without any explanation).

Ether inflow, as shown in Figure 9, can explain the galaxy rotation problem without the need for dark matter. Most of the mass of a galaxy is located in its central bulge. This causes the gravitational pull to be the greatest in the center, which thereby causes the ether inflow to be the greatest there as well. Because the ether is flowing inward at a much greater velocity at the galactic center, any light leaving that location will be pulled back more than light coming from the edge of the galaxy (where ether inflow is less). This will cause light leaving the galaxy to be delayed more from the center than from the edge. Consequently, light from the centre of a galaxy will arrive at earth later than the light from its edge. Figure 26 demonstrates this. The two light waves leaving the galaxy (on the left) end up hitting the telescope mirror (on right) at different times.

Time Lensing: Alternate theory for dark matter

Figure 26

Because the light waves arrive at different times, an observer on earth sees various parts of the galaxy at different times of its life. The closer to the center of the galaxy we look, the further back in time we see. The Andromeda galaxy (for example) is approximately 2.5 million light years from earth. The light we see from the edge of the galaxy started its journey 2.5 million years ago. Light from the center of the galaxy, however,  started its journey more than 2.5 million years ago (maybe 2.8 million years ago).

Hence we are not getting a 'snapshot' of the entire galaxy at one particular point in time. The closer to the center we look, the further into the past we look. I call this effect 'Time Lensing'. Since we see the center of the galaxy when it was younger (and less massive), we see it rotating more slowly. Consequently, the stars on the outer edge appear to be orbiting more quickly than they should.

Because each galaxy has its own unique shape and size, there will not be a 'one formula fits all' type of explanation (like MOND). Each galaxy will have a unique time lens that is determined by features such as its shape (i.e. spiral, globular cluster, disk), mass distribution and viewing angle.