"Discovery is seeing what everybody else has seen, and thinking what nobody else has thought."

- Albert Szent-Gyorgi -

Time Variance

Gravitational Wave Detector

Detector Design

Figure 34 illustrates the distortions produced in foamy ether as a gravitational wave approaches the earth. Arrows show the inward flow of ether towards the planet. As stated in ether theory, the speed of this ether at the earth's surface is 11.2 km/sec. Slight variations in the speed of ether will occur as the gravitational wave passes through the earth. This variation in ether flow will manifest itself as momentary changes in time dilation at the earth's surface.

Figure 34

Figure 35a shows a simplified diagram of a device that can be used to measure variations in time dilation caused by a passing gravitational wave. It is comprised of three lasers arranged in a triangular configuration. These lasers should be separated by as large of a geographical distance as possible. Fiber optic cables can be used to transport the signals from these lasers to a central receiver. (Current fiber optics technology is capable of transmitting a light signal from distances of up to 120 km).

Figure 35a

At the center, an Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA) is set up to detect the frequency fluctuations of the three lasers. The frequency shift of the lasers is caused by a change in time dilation, which is caused by the incoming gravitational wave varying the speed of the inflowing ether. For example, a gravitational wave may cause the flow of ether to momentarily increase at laser A. This would cause an increase in time dilation, and consequently decrease the laser's frequency, compared to the other lasers (B and C). The gravitational wave's direction and wavelength can then be determined by comparing the differences in frequency shift of these three lasers.

The sensitivity of the gravitational wave detector can be greatly increased by installing the lasers in pairs, so that there are three pairs of lasers arranged in a triangular configuration. This will eliminate random frequency fluctuations caused by an individual laser's instability (or environmental effects). The detector would only record frequency shifts that are common to the two lasers in a pair, since any change in time dilation would affect the pair of lasers in an equal manner. Any frequency shift that occurs in only one laser in a pair, would be considered noise. This noise reduction strategy will also be used in the planned LISA detector. Each of the three satellites record doppler shifts from the other two satellites, resulting in a total of six data streams. Downstream processing compares the two doppler shifts recorded for each leg of the triangle, which thereby removes random noise generated by individual lasers. This process can increased the sensitivity of the detector by many orders of magnitude (see Time-Delay Interferometry for Space-based Gravitational Wave Searches).

Of course the central OSA is also affected by time dilation as the gravitational wave passes through it, but this would register as identical, simultaneous frequency fluctuations coming from all lasers. An additional laser can be added to each pair (at locations A, B & C) for redundancy. This would ensure that the detector continues to function in the event of a single laser failure.

A more detailed drawing of the gravitational wave detector is shown in Figure 35b. A group of three lasers are located in each building (A, B and C) for a total of nine lasers. Each building is located in a remote area as far away from the Central Hub as possible. An atomic clock could be connected to each laser to ensure the laser's frequency remains constant. Each laser is connected to a fiber optics cable, which can then be connected to an optical multiplexer (to save on fiber).

The three fiber optic cables (one from each building) are then connected to the Central Hub, which are then broken back out into nine fibers using three optical demultiplexers. Each of the fiber optic cables are then terminated on nine Optical Spectrum Analyzers located at the Central Hub. The OSAs measure the changes in the lasers' wavelength (Δλ) or frequency (Δƒ) and feeds that into Analogue to Digital Converters (A/D). The A/Ds convert the analogue frequency fluctuations into PCM signals (Pulse Code Modulation) which are immediately stored to disk.

Figure 35c shows the stored PCM samples from the three remotes (A, B and C) being fed into comparators to remove local disturbances (random noise). For example, Comparator A will compare the Δλ of at least two of the three lasers from remote location A. Any differences between the Δλ of the lasers will be considered random noise and will be discarded. Only changes in wavelengths that are identical between at least two lasers will pass through Comparator A. Remember, random noise will affect only one laser, but a gravitational wave will equally affect all lasers in a group.

The output of the three comparators can now be sent for analysis to a super computer, or to a distributed system such as BOINC. BOINC could analyze the signals in the same manner as it does for other gravitational wave detector projects such as Einstein@Home.

Figure 35b

Figure 35c

2020 by Peter C.M. Hahn C.E.T.