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"May every young scientist remember and not fail to keep his eyes open for the possibility that an irritating failure of his apparatus to give consistent results may once or twice in a lifetime conceal an important discovery."

- Patrick Blackett -

## Gravitational Wave Detector

Introduction

Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts the existence of gravitational waves. Gravitational waves are undulations, or distortions in the fabric of space-time, caused by massive bodies in motion. These waves travel in an outwardly direction, similar to the way sound waves emanate from a vibrating object. Indirect evidence of gravitational waves has been obtained by studying binary pulsar systems. General relativity predicts that some energy will be dissipated by the system, in the form of gravitational waves. This loss of energy will cause the orbits of the binary pulsars to decay. Astronomical observations of binary pulsars have been made, and measurements of this orbital decay are consistent with the predictions of general relativity. Various detectors have been built in an attempt to detect these gravitational waves directly.

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This article proposes a unique and innovative design of a device that will be able to directly detect gravitational waves. The technique used in this design is a direct result of the inflow that is predicted in foamy ether theory.

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To illustrate gravitational waves using ether theory, I created a simple animation that shows gravitational waves passing through ether (Figure 31a). An additional animation shows a gravitational wave with markers (Figure 31b) that helps to illustrate the ether movement more clearly. The yellow dot is stationary, while the green dot moves with the wave to demonstrate the rhythmic flow of foamy ether. This is similar to an ocean wave lapping up onto a beach. The yellow dot represents a stick in the sand, while the green dot represents a leaf floating on the water. The water and the leaf flow rhythmically past the stick as the ocean wave flows up and down the beach.

Figure 31a

Figure 31b

This rhythmic ether flow is a crucial concept that is necessary in explaining the design of my gravitational wave detector. Current designs are based on measuring the change in distance between several points as the gravitational wave passes through the detector. Ether theory predicts that this technique will not work *. For instance, the LIGO gravitational wave detector uses lasers to detect changes in the length of its two arms. Unfortunately, its design is based on the assumption that light travels at a constant velocity. Ether theory predicts that the speed of light varies as the tension on the ether varies. As the gravitational wave distorts (stretches or compresses) space, the ether stretches or compresses as well, thereby causing the speed of light to increase or decrease respectively. The change in the speed of light is proportional to the change in the length of the LIGO detector's arms. LIGO's design is also based on the assumption that the gravitational wave will only change the length of the arms, not the laser light's wavelength. I think it's safe to assume that since space itself is being distorted by the gravitational wave, the wavelength of the laser gets stretched or compressed along with the detector's arms. In other words, the distortion in space-time will distort the detector's arms and the laser light in an equal manner. My logic is as follows.

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Light from distant stars are red-shifted because the universe is expanding. As the space between us and a distant star stretches, the photon's wavelength also stretches. If the universe doubles in size, the photon's wavelength doubles. The photon also has to travel twice the distance, and the increase in c would be proportional to the square root of the tension on the ether. This is what happens to photons in LIGO's arms. The arm will stretch, but so will the photon's wavelength; and the photon will travel a bit faster (because space is stretched). The net effect of the interferometer is always zero.

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Here's an even better argument using the Shapiro Time Delay (or Gravitational Time Delay):

Radar signals (or light) will be delayed as the signal passes by a massive object (see Figure 32). The signal will start out with a certain wavelength (point A). As it grazes the massive object (point B), its wavelength will shorten and its speed will slow down (relative to an independent background). Once it passes the object, it resumes its original wavelength and speed (point C). The total travel time of the photon is greater than if the massive object were not there. The same thing happens to light when it passes through a thicker medium such as a glass lens.

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Another example of gravitational waves causing light to slow down is the Pulsar Timing Array Project. The EM pulses from a number of millisecond pulsars are monitored for an extended period of time. It is theorized that gravitational waves passing between these pulsars and earth will distort the fabric of spacetime and cause delays in the arrival time of these pulses. (This project has not yet achieved enough sensitivity to produce valid results.)

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I am still perplexed by the fact that the ‘Shapiro Time Delay’ proves that a gravitational field will slow down light, and the ‘Pulsar Timing Array’ project is relying on differences in the delay of EM pulse arrival times. But the speed of light is assumed to be unchanging when the fabric of spacetime itself is distorted when a gravitational wave passes through LIGO???

Figure 32

Referring to Figure 32, let's say that the length of 'A' is 4km (same length as LIGO's arms). In this example, a LIGO arm placed at position A will occupy three wavelengths. Moving the LIGO arm to point B will cause the arm length to shrink, but it will still occupy three wavelengths because the wavelength shrinks as well. The arm and wavelengths return to normal at point C.

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So moving the LIGO arm through points A, B and C (low gravity, high gravity, low gravity) is identical to a gravitational wave passing through a LIGO arm. The arm will shrink momentarily, but so does the photon's wavelength!

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To illustrate this, I have created two simulations; one of a gravitational wave detector experiencing no distortion, and one of the gravitational wave detector being distorted as a gravitational wave passes through it. Figure 33a shows the detector with both arms initially having the same length (no distortion). A laser sends a beam of light through a beam splitter, which causes one half of the beam to travel up the vertical arm and the other half to travel along the horizontal arm. Mirrors at each end of the arms send the laser light back to the splitter, which recombines the two beams and sends them to a detector (colored orange). Since the two arms are exactly the same length, the two laser beams arrive in phase with the same frequency.

Figure 33a

I have used the same bungee cord model as in the Expanding Universe section to simulate a light beam traveling through foamy ether. The blue and white dashed pattern shows that each arm is exactly ten units long. Since the bungee cord (foamy ether) is stretched to exactly the same tension, the light waves travel at the same speed in each arm.

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Figure 33b shows what the above detector could look like while a gravitational wave passes through. The vertical arm becomes compressed, while the horizontal arm gets stretched. (Notice that the laser, detector, beam splitter, and mirrors become distorted as well). You can see by the dashed pattern that each arm is still ten units long, even though the length of the arms have changed. This simulation can be used to explain why the LIGO detector will fail to notice any changes in the lengths of its arms. The arm that increases in length also has the bungee cord stretched. This stretching causes the wave to travel at a proportionately greater speed. Notice that the traveling wave also has an increase in its wavelength. This increase in wavelength will not be noticed, however, because the laser and detector have become distorted as well.

Figure 33b

By viewing both simulations together, you can see that both waves reach the splitter at exactly the same time, regardless of the detector's distortion. By realizing that the speed of light varies with the stretching of foamy ether (space), it becomes apparent that detectors similar in design to LIGO will be unable to detect any changes in its length that are caused by gravitational waves. (Click here for a more accurate 2D simulation of foamy ether).

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In light of the recent claims of gravitational wave events by LIGO and Virgo detectors, I am still convinced that interferometers will not work. I have created a blog in ResearchGate that documents my doubts. These doubts are shared by many others that believe the only thing that LIGO and other interferometers are capable of detecting are glitches and artificial injections.

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The remainder of this article describes a gravitational wave detector that is based on an entirely different design. In addition to detecting gravitational waves, this device can also be used to verify the inflow of ether that is predicted by ether theory.

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